Urology Urology is the surgical specialty that focuses on the urinary tracts of males and females, and on the reproductive system of males. Medical professionals specializing in the field of urology are called urologists and are trained to diagnose, treat, and manage patients with urological disorders. The organs covered by urology include the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra and the male reproductive organs (testes, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate and penis). Both Urologists and General Surgeons operate on the adrenal glands. In men, the urinary system overlaps with the reproductive system, and in women the urinary tract opens into the vulva In both sexes, the urinary and reproductive tracts are close together, and disorders of one often affect the other. Urology combines management of medical (i.e. non-surgical) problems such as urinary tract infections and benign prostatic hyperplasia, as well as surgical problems such as the surgical management of cancers, the correction of congenital abnormalities, and correcting stress incontinence.