Many diseases of the urinary tract require endoscopic surgery. These include kidney stones, ureteropelvic junction obstruction, ureteral strictures, tumors in the kidney collecting system or ureter and relief of blockage in the kidney. There are two main approaches to endoscopic surgery. The first approach is from a “retrograde” fashion. This means to approach it from the lower part of the urinary tract up. This is used to bypass any stones, strictures or blockage of the ureter in order to drain urine. The surgeon may often use lasers to break up stones or strictures. The second approach is from the “antegrade” or “percutaneous” fashion. This means to approach the kidney through the skin. Kidney stones, ureteropelvic junction obstruction and sometimes tumors or unknown tissues are treated through the tract. The patient should expect to resume their normal activities within 1-2 weeks following ureteroscopic surgery and 2-3 weeks following percutaneous surgery.